Document Type : Original Article


Islamic Azad University Parand Branch, Iran


Among various cultural models, the dichotomy of static versus dynamic models has provided a fertile ground for research. Although a number of static models are suggested, the dominant trend in almost all static models is provided by Hofstede who focuses on cultural differences along four major dimensions (power distance, individualism, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity) and reduces “the complex phenomenon of culture in simple and measurable terms” (Fang, 2010, p. 156). The main concern is whether static bipolar models can cope with the requirements of the globalized era when cross-cultural communication “in an increasingly borderless and wireless workplace, marketplace, and cyberspace” (Fang, 2012, p. 2) is needed. Studying Fang’s dynamic cultural model versus Hofstede’s static cultural dimensions theory, the present paper, through the case study of Iranian culture, hypothesizes that dynamic models, such as Fang’s (2005, 2012), which recognize the paradoxical essence of cultures, emphasize all-dimensional cultural nearness. In Fang’s model, cultures are dialogic and open for cross-cultural interaction rather than monologic and segregated.