Document Type : Original Article


1 Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Indonesia

2 Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Indonesia

3 Universitas Pamulang, Indonesia

4 National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia


Women in Eastern culture are often thought of as “the other”. Similarly, feminism in Indonesian literature is also considered a contemporary literary phenomenon in the 21st century. However, according to our research findings, feminism in Indonesian literature has been present since 1901, during Dutch colonialism. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate how feminism is represented in Indonesian literature. The source of this research data is Four Novels by Ki Padmasusastra (FNKP), published between 1901 and 1924. We used qualitative methods to analyze the data. The results showed that FNKP is a postcolonial novel that represents feminism and educational values. Feminism in FNKP was influenced by the Dutch during the colonial period in Indonesia. The authors seek to show that feminism is not at odds with Eastern culture but rather reflects its diversity and complexity. Through literature, the authors seek to educate readers about the similarities and differences between Eastern and Western cultures and how they can coexist in modern society.